This paper is aimed at the development of a tool analysing the AAI results for the Russian older citizens from different population groups, as well as at identifying factors underlying the inequalities in active ageing outcomes by calculation the AAI on the national and individual levels. The adaptation of the methodology of the AAI to the individual-level data and the limitations of the approach are explicitly explained. The older generations of Russia show relatively high levels of education, financial security and engagement in family care, especially in the care to children. The most significant potential for development have employment, volunteering, political engagement, physical activity, lifelong learning and use of the Internet. The calculation of the AAI at the individual level has revealed significant inequalities in the degree of realisation of potential in different areas of active ageing. The results of the project provide scientific evidence for the implementation of policy measures in the target groups. The high correlation of the index values with human capital indicators (health and education) underlines the importance of the early interventions aimed at promoting and supporting human capital at the earlier stages of the life course till the old age. The substantial positive connection of employment with other forms of activity stresses the necessity of developing a package of activation policy measures aimed at the retention of older adults in the labour market. At the same time, the statistical analysis showed the absence of a “dilemma of choice” between certain types of activity of the older generation, for example, between caring for grandchildren and employment, or employment and volunteering - the potential in different areas may be increased simultaneously.
European regions experience accelerating ageing, but the process has substantial regional variation. This paper examines the effect of this variation on regional economic cohesion in Europe. We measure the effect of convergence or divergence in the share of the working age population on convergence or divergence in economies of NUTS 2 regions. The effect of convergence or divergence in ageing on economic convergence or divergence is quite substantial and, in some cases, is bigger than the effect of changes in productivity and labour force participation. Convergence of ageing leads to economic convergence only when the share of the working age population in rich regions exceeds that in poor regions and the former regions experience a substantial decline in the share of the working age population, or the latter regions experience an increase. During 2003–12, an inverse relationship between convergence in ageing and economic convergence was the rule rather than the exception.
The article demonstrates how the situation of social exclusion affects the strategies that migrants and their children experience vis-à-vis the preschooleducation system of the host society. We use the example of two private institutions established in Moscow by Kyrgyz migrants to explore their role in helping integrate migrant children into the host society. The article examines the role that the Kyrgyz community plays in the life of labor migrants in Moscow, and the reasons why private migrant infrastructure is created today by people from this particular country, even though eventually migrants from other countries use it as well. The author concludes that in recent years, migrants have been creating private infrastructure in Russia as an alternative to the public one. It replaces state institutions for migrants that are not accessible to them. Migrants also view it as one of the channels for entering the Russian society and state institutions. These centers not so much help migrants’ children to escape social isolation, as compensate for the lack of adjustment programs in Russian schools.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are one of the key factors for fundamental changes in industries. Along with the positively assessed impact of ICTs on labour productivity’s growth, there are concerns about possible industrial unemployment. The analysis of the relationship between ICTs, labour productivity and employment in inter-sectoral comparison in Russia shows heterogeneous effects depending on particular industries. Despite the substantial spread of ICTs in recent years, the findings indicate that their influence on labour productivity and employment is characterized rather by gradual changes and sustainability in certain industries.
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
This article examines ethnic segregation at school level in Russia and the symbolic boundaries constructed around schools attended by children of migrants, as well as inside them. While Russian cities are notable for the very low degree of spatial segregation along ethnic lines, numerous studies demonstrate that in recent years local residents have come to perceive some institutions as ‘migrant schools’ as these have pupils of more diverse ethnic backgrounds. In particular, children of migrants and ‘local’ children create their own symbolic divides between ‘us’ and ‘them’ that reflects the degree of a pupil’s integration into the host society rather than her ethnic origins. When conflict situations break out between schoolchildren, the migrant stereotypes current in wider society are reproduced. On the school administration level, the main problem is a lack of adaptation programmes for children of migrants, as well as lessons in Russian as a second language.
This paper is based on the fieldwork carried out in Moscow among Muslim migrants. The research is focused on the practices of ritual healing and expelling djinn in the context of migration and urban post-secular environment. I am interested in self-reflection and introspection of all the participants of the treatment – a mullah, his patients, their relatives, and even opponents to these Muslim practices. In this study, it is not my intention to delve too deeply into the analysis of what possession is or determine its causes, but rather to look at specific situations from my field work through the lens of modernity, morality, authority and precarity, in order to attempt to present the experience of possession and my informants’ struggle against it in all its richness and complexity.
The official method of measuring poverty in Russia is based on an absolute approach that uses an expertly calculated subsistence level as a poverty line. However, there is an ongoing debate about the possible use of other approaches to measuring poverty. This study focuses on identifying the relative ‘poverty line’ relevant to contemporary Russian society as a threshold of high poverty risk. Drawing on representative all-Russian surveys, the authors conclude that the relative poverty thresholds set at 0.5 and 0.75 times the median per capita family income identify different subgroups of the poor. A median threshold of 0.75 highlights poverty of the elderly, who are not considered to be poor by the absolute approach officially used in Russian statistics, but need attention in terms of social policy.
This paper investigates youth migration in Russia at the sub-regional level of administrative division. The aim of the research is to assess the volume of internal youth migration in cohort perspective. The task is only doable with the use of census data, which not only makes it possible to conduct research at the sub-regional level, but also provides much more accurate information on youth migration than the current migration record. I utilize cohort-component analysis to study sub-regional population dynamics. As mortality is quite insignificant at young ages, most of the change in cohort size is caused by migration. My estimates show that during the last intercensal period, 2003-2010, up to 70 percent of youth cohorts have left the regional periphery after graduating from school, and there was no substantial return to the demographically depleted periphery in the young working ages. This paper investigates youth migration in Russia at the sub-regional level of administrative division. The aim of the research is to assess the volume of internal youth migration in cohort perspective. The task is only doable with the use of census data, which not only makes it possible to conduct research at the sub-regional level, but also provides much more accurate information on youth migration than the current migration record. I utilize cohort-component analysis to study sub-regional population dynamics. As mortality is quite insignificant at young ages, most of the change in cohort size is caused by migration. My estimates show that during the last intercensal period, 2003-2010, up to 70 percent of youth cohorts have left the regional periphery after graduating from school, and there was no substantial return to the demographically depleted periphery in the young working ages.
Dual or multiple earnership has been considered an important factor to prevent in-work poverty. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of second earnership on the risk of in-work poverty and the role of the tax-benefit system in moderating this risk. Our analysis refers to 2014 and employs EUROMOD, the tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union and the United Kingdom. In order to assess the role of second earners in preventing in-work poverty we simulate a counterfactual scenario where second earners become unemployed. Our results show that the effect of net replacement rates (i.e. the ratio of household income before and after the transition of second earners to unemployment) on the probability of in-work poverty is negative and statistically significant, but in relative terms it appears to be small compared to the effects of individual labour market characteristics, such as low pay and part-time employment.
This article concerns the Islamic community in contemporary Russia and the dynamic identities of Muslim migrants there. The focus of this study is the religious and wider social practices of those Muslim migrants who are considered leaders of local micro-communities, enjoy respect within their religious community, and have steadfast religious authority within their circles. These practices are considered in their local religious and migrant contexts through the prism of such concepts as religious individualism, everyday lived Islam, and tactical religion. The author shows multiple ties that emerge between the region’s Muslims, specifically between unofficial local leaders, and other believers who need this authority to elaborate their everyday Muslim practices in the context of migration and the authority crisis in Russian Islam. This study emphasizes the importance of the everyday in the formation of individual religiosity and shows how a local Muslim environment builds up around certain key figures outside the mosque.
In recent years, ‘the Kyrgyz infrastructure’ began to develop in Moscow: ‘Kyrgyz clinics’, kindergartens, courses for preparing children for school, and real estate agencies made their appearance in the city. This infrastructure emerged as a result of the social exclusion of labor migrants in Russia. The Kyrgyz people have a special status in Russia as citizens of the EAEU. Despite this fact, they, like other migrants, face discrimination in the labor market and in accessing medical assistance. The article analyzes the emergence of the infrastructure created by migrants in Moscow and the reasons why the Kyrgyz community succeeded in this endeavor.
Increasing the effectiveness of housing institutions is of the utmost importance at the current stage of the
housing reforming. In this regard, a question has arisen as to whether the owners are ready (and to what extent) to
be involved in the public control over the house management. The article considers how apartment owners participate in the activities of the neighborhood communities in their multistorey buildings. The study is based on the report drawn
from the nationwide study “Russian awareness of the housing reforms” conducted by VCIOM in 2016 and commis
sioned by Nonprofit Partnership ZhKKh Konrol (National centre of public control in the housing sector), as well as the
interviews with the activists represent ing multistorey buildings. The interview data were collected in Moscow, Moscow, Leningrad and Kaluga oblasts. The article employs the concept of social capital and L.Thevenot's pragmatic approach. Two types of activists are singled out: (1) social innovator in new houses, and (2) house manager upravdom) in old houses. Activists are facing difficulties trying to gather the owners for meetings as they do not have enough experience in civic and political activities. Activist practices are still in their infancy. Activists are eager to introduce new practices, however, common people fail to realize the importance and the impact these practices may have on the quality of housing and utilities sector. The gap can be reduced through further aware nessbuilding efforts by the Housing Reform Assistance Fund
The ageing population in Russia has led to a shift from distributive pay-as-you-go financed pension system into a multi-pillar one. In 2002, individuals were given the opportunity to form and manage their individual pension funds. Since then, reforms have continued. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how the views and attitudes of working-age Russians regarding retirement have changed over a period (2005-2018). Research was done using the survey data «Monitoring of the financial behavior of Russians (2009-2018)» (NRU-HSE), «Monitoring of financial activity of population (2005)» (ZIRCON) and Initiative Study of NAFI (2007). Despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes that have taken place, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better, fewer Russians are confident in 2018 that they will have enough money for living after retirement, the number of those who expect to receive additional income has reduced, financial retirement strategies have not become common.
The monograph presents a historical and geographical analysis of changes in the image of the territory and administrative division of Russia from 1900 to 2000. Based on a large number of different sources, the main regularities of administrative and territorial transformations in connection with the peculiarities of political processes and socio- economic development of the country in various periods of the XX century have been identified. The book contains a wealth of copyright material and is illustrated with many copyright maps.
The paper addresses the question, what is the underling nature of the Russians’ demand for the state support in three fields such as labour market and employment, social investments, and material support. Based on the recent findings from social policy studies, the authors have tested four different mechanisms, which are as follows: (a) demographic features of the population, (b) household incomes and disposable assets including human and social capital, (c) interests, and (d) locus control and cultural settings. Drawing on the all-Russia representative Monitoring survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2018, the authors argued that population’s demands for the state support has very complex nature. Moreover, the relative impact of income has a paradoxical nature. On the one hand, the Russian data confirm the hypothesis of ‘altruistic reach’ developed in recent studies, which predicts that, in societies with high inequalities, higher incomes boost the probability of demands for the redistributive settings. On the other hand, higher incomes foster state escapism of those Russians who do not consider state as a reliable agent capable to solve their problems.
This article is devoted to the study of international experience in state support of family care for the elderly. The study aims to outline possible prospects for the development of state support for family care in Russia based on critical analysis of international experience. The analysis was based on available data on social support measures for family care in different countries of the world. The study found that financial support is the most common way to support caregivers in Europe. In some countries (for example, Canada, USA) there are tax benefits for persons who provides care for an elderly relative (or disabled person). However, it was mentioned that the main disadvantage of monetary support for care-givers is reducing the incentives to participate in formal employment. In that regard, it is necessary to implement measures to support the ability of care-givers to combine work and family care. Flexible working conditions for care-givers are provided, for example, in the UK, Australia, USA and other countries.
Objective of the study is to develop and test a methodology for assessing the degree of involvement in the use of ICT in various areas of life. Background. Modern social and physical environments are saturated with digital incentives that encourage people to get involved in interacting with these environments through information and communication technologies (ICT). However, to this date, there are no psychological instruments that comprehensively assess the involvement of individuals in the use of ICTs. Study design. The study was conducted using a socio-psychological survey. To measure involvement in the use of ICT, an authoring methodology was developed and validated. Participants. The study included two samples. The first sample included 859 respondents (average age 36.1 years; 32% of males). The second — 171 respondents (35% of males; age range from 25 to 44 years). Measurements. For data processing, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach coefficient alpha, and correlation analysis were applied in the SPSS 19.0 and AMOS 20 programs. Results. Good results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate the presence of reliability-consistency of the methodology. The final version of the methodology includes 4 scales: “Economic actions on the Internet”, “Communication on social networks”, “Using a smartphone”, “A variety of areas of ICT use”. The empirical and external validity of this methodology was also evaluated, as a result of which we received confirmation of these types of validity from the developed methodology. Conclusions. The technique developed by the authors is reliable and valid and can be used both for research and for applied purposes.