The article discusses the concentration of the insurance market in Russia, its influence on the state of insurance in the country and regions. The indicators of the concentration of the insurance market, including by types of insurance, are analyzed, the factors of their changes in the period of 2014–2018 are specified. Predictive estimates of the concentration of the insurance business on the basis of identified trends are given.
European regions experience accelerating ageing, but the process has substantial regional variation. This paper examines the effect of this variation on regional economic cohesion in Europe. We measure the effect of convergence or divergence in the share of the working age population on convergence or divergence in economies of NUTS 2 regions. The effect of convergence or divergence in ageing on economic convergence or divergence is quite substantial and, in some cases, is bigger than the effect of changes in productivity and labour force participation. Convergence of ageing leads to economic convergence only when the share of the working age population in rich regions exceeds that in poor regions and the former regions experience a substantial decline in the share of the working age population, or the latter regions experience an increase. During 2003–12, an inverse relationship between convergence in ageing and economic convergence was the rule rather than the exception.
Background: Creating visualizations that include multiple dimensions of the data while preserving spatial structure and readability is challenging. Here we demonstrate the use of geofaceting to meet this challenge.
Objective: Using data on young adult mortality in the 32 Mexican states from 1990 to 2015, we demonstrate how aligning small multiples for territorial units, often regions, according to their approximate geographical location – geofaceting – can be used to depict complex multi-dimensional phenomena.
Methods: The idea is to align small-multiples for territorial units, often regions, according to approximate geographical location. We illustrate the technique using data on young adult mortality in the 32 Mexican states from 1990 to 2015.
Results: Geofaceting reveals the macro-level spatial pattern while preserving the ﬂexibility of choosing any visualization techniques for the small multiples. Creating geofaceted visualizations gives all the advantages of standard plots in which one can adequately display multiple dimensions of a dataset.
Contribution: Compared to other ways of small-multiples' arrangement, geofaceting improves the speed of regions' identification and exposes the broad spatial pattern.
In the study of lifestyle, experts appeal to different aspects of life. By “lifestyle,” some people understand only consumer practices, others focus their attention on civic and political activity, and others depict it through objective characteristics of employment, education, and welfare. Considering the existing approaches, here we present a description of the lifestyle in big cities of Russia, using data from various sources – from official statistics to sample household surveys to present a picture in detail. Special attention is paid to the cases of the two federal cities – Moscow and St. Petersburg, as the most striking examples of the formation of a special urban lifestyle in contemporary Russia.
The paper presents the composition of regional social expenditure and the role of regional budgets in public social spending as well as the social burden of regional budgets in Russia in the last decade. Also some problematic issues of regional social spending in Russia are discussed.
This book focuses on how school facilities can affect children’s learning outcomes, identifying parameters that can inform the design, implementation, and supervision of future educational infrastructure projects. It reflects on aspects for which the evidence could be strengthened, and identifies areas for further exploratory work.
The paper discusses the popular use of legal services in the Russian Empire in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. Although the studies of popular attitudes towards courts and formal legal were before the collapse of the ancien régime in 1917 abound, they overwhelmingly focus on litigation in low-level judicial settings with very few professional lawyers involved, while the relationship between the members of general public and legal professionals largely remained obscure with the main exception of the state criminals and their public defenders. Therefore, this paper aims to fill the gap by exploring the accessibility of legal services to the various groups of general public along with the ways people interpreted the relationships they had with legal practitioners and the conflicts that sprang from the discrepancy between professional and lay approaches to legal services. The paper focuses on the relationships between general public and the most privileged group of lawyers, named sworn attorneys, which appeared after the reform of legal procedure in the mid-1860s and was entitled to a great deal of professional autonomy, including the right to form partially independent local bar associations. These bar associations were supervised by the elected doyens who could bring disciplinary proceedings against sworn attorneys if they failed to peacefully resolve the disputes with their clients, legal officials or colleagues. Since a disciplinary proceeding usually started with a client complaint about lawyer's professional misconduct, the archives of the bar associations seem to offer a rare look at the professional-client relationship from the perspective of ordinary people. This study draws upon the records of the multiple disciplinary proceedings kept in the archive of the Moscow bar association which encompassed sworn attorneys practising in the Central European provinces of the Empire. The scope of primary sources is narrowed down to the records spanning the well documented period between 1883 and 1902 and representing the situation when clients appeared unsatisfied with the way sworn attorneys argued civil cases on their behalf. As the records show, all social groups, including peasantry, made ample use of legal services provided by sworn attorneys to protect their property rights. Furthermore, the proportion of clients from rural areas was on the steady rise during the observed period. Meanwhile, the complaints tended to fall into two groups. While the first group of complainers believed that sworn attorneys failed to adhere to the formal requirements of the legal procedure and, therefore, lost the cases in question, the second group encompassed those who challenged lawyers' professional expertise blaming the loss on the incomprehension or even incoherent legal arguments sworn attorneys had allegedly put forward in the course of lawsuits. The higher social status a complainer had, the more prone she/he was to the second kind of disputes. Nonetheless, there was one thing that the high-status complainers apparently shared with their counterparts of less affluent backgrounds. Surprisingly, most of the complainers, regardless of their social status, demanded sworn attorneys to repay their litigation costs, assuming that legal practitioners would provide a safety net if a lawsuit resulted in significant financial losses.
Background and aims. Young Russians have been drinking less alcohol, and fewer strong spirits in particular, in recent years. This study aimed to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects for the first time in Russia to improve our understanding of these trends. Design. Age, period and cohort analysis of annual nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys [Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE)] using separate logistic models for each gender. Setting. Russia 1994–2016. Participants. A total of 195234 respondents aged 14 – 85 years. Measurements. Age (14 groups: 14-17 to 76+ years), period (21 years: 1994–2016) and birth cohorts (17 groups: 1920 –24 to 2000–02). Outcome measures were 30-day overall and beverage-specific alcohol use prevalence accounting for vodka, moonshine, beer and wine. Controls were per capita income, education, marital status, ethnicity, residence type and regional climate. Findings. Controlling for age and period effects, the most recent cohorts had lower rates of participation than older cohorts. Findings were valid for females born in 1995–2002 (P= 0.000) and males born in 1990–94 (P= 0.002) and 1995 –2002 (P= 0.000). The period effects were strong in 1994–2003 due to intensive substitution of beer in place of vodka. Period effects were also important in determining a decline of prevalence in 2008–15 due to restrictive alcohol policy. Age effects showed an inverse U-shaped trend in both genders, except for moonshine and wine. Overall, drinking profiles were beverage-specific. Models indicated diverse beverage-specific effects of income, ethnicity, education, marital status and residence on the prevalence of alcohol use. Conclusion. The recent downward trend in alcohol use in Russia appears to be attributable to reduced participation rates among younger cohorts born after 1990.
The transfer of knowledge and skills is a key social process that supports the functioning of all social institutions, including the economy. Existing research shows that the participation of adults in education throughout their lives has noticeable consequences for wealth, social wellbeing, state of health and cognitive abilities. The learnability of adults provides an additional resource for the economy, which increases its resistance and adaptability during a crisis, allows institutional development and provides an increase of human capital during economic growth. In this paper, we analyze the involvement of adults in education and estimate the effectiveness of adult educational practices in Russia in comparison with OECD countries. The analysis is based on the data of the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC). It is shown that adult learners in Russia demonstrate the same level of measured competences (in reading and math) as those who are not involved in any educational activities. The results are quite different for OECD countries. At the same time, we observe dissimilar models of participation of adults in education in Russia and OECD countries. In the latter countries, there is a "supportive" role of adult education, in which a learner has a strong career, income and social wellbeing, while in Russia a "crisis" model is common for those adults involved in formal education.
Drawing on the all-Russia representative survey data, the given paper aims to study public demand of Russians for the state cooperation to solve their problems in three different fields, as of workfare policies, social investment, and social support. Active labour market policies are mostly demanded by youth that is struggling to access good jobs. Demands for active social support are likely to root in personal situations, particularly, those requiring solving financial and housing issues, which these Russians are not able to tackle themselves, thus demanding transfers from the state.Demands for active social investment policies are more are the most heterogeneous. Independence from the state is typical for the most prosperous part of the population who do not face any serious problems. To meet these diverse demands, the government should differentiate and prioritise the means of social policy.
Recent years have been characterized by a further drop in real incomes of Russians and the spread of pessimism among them regarding their material situation (after a short-term growth of optimistic expectations during the presidential campaign). The current situation in Russia in this area can be described as “negative stabilization”, because, although the decrease in the population’s incomes has stopped, they have stabilized at a lower level than prior to the crisis of 2014–2016. Groups which differ in the dynamics of their material situation starting from 2014 also differ in the specifics of their composition and positions in the system of monetary and especially non-monetary inequalities. The higher an individual’s place in the social hierarchy of life chances, the higher the likelihood of him being in an upward mobility group and the lower the chances of winding up in a group with downward mobility, and vice versa. For the evolution prospects of Russian society’s stratification model this means an increasing polarization of the mass strata of the population. However, so far these processes proceed at a moderate pace and affect the “top” rather than the “bottom” of these strata. The most significant factors determining Russians’ assessments of the dynamics of their material situation are their health, type of locus-control and planning horizon — personal characteristics that affect the ability of developing and implementing effective adaptation strategies. The high importance of personal factors for the dynamics of one’s material situation indicates the crisis nature of modern Russian society, since for crisis societies personal qualities of an individual are more important for the vector of his mobility than structural factors or human and social capital.
The possibility of achieving a work-life balance can be considered as one of the types of life chances related to the quality of life. In the article, the main dimensions of inequality in the possibilities of achieving life balance in general and in different areas that compose it (with special attention devoted to the possibilities of non-production activities), are estimated on the basis of the data of all-Russian representative monitoring carried out by Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS. It is shown that inequalities in the sphere of life balance do not smooth out other monetary and non-monetary inequalities in life chances (in particular – those in economic sphere), but, on the contrary, deepen them. It is concluded that vertical stratification remains dominant in Russian society, and those dimensions of non-monetary inequality that are associated with way of life and lifestyle, are superimposed on it rather than become the basis of horizontal stratification. Therefore, the possibility of achieving it in Russian society today is a sign of the general well-being in vertical hierarchies of other economic and non-economic life chances. The general context for formation of work-life balance concept is also taken into account - in particular, it is shown that social perceptions of life success remain fairly traditional and are connected mostly with the realization of goals in the social and work sphere that are quite achievable and complementary in the population’s own assessments.
The article analyzes the large families’ life practices using the RLMS-HSE data. The characteristics of large families’ life practices as compared to other types of families (with/without children) are identified. The specificity of participation of large families’ members in labor force is shown, the issue of «double employment» of women is raised. Ways of delegating responsibilities for child care, as well as the possibilities of receiving assistance and transfers are analyzed. There are no significant differences in the level of self-preserving behavior of large families (other than alcohol consumption) compared with other types of families, however, the self-reported health level of large families’ members was higher. In addition, there is a higher level of subjective well-being against the background of lower objective income indicators.
The article discusses the processes of precarization, developing rapidly in Russian society, have affected by now a significant portion of the country's population. It is also noted that the formation of precariat raises the question of a possible change in the very grounds (criteria) for distinguishing classes in Russian society, and the nature of employment and degree of social security. A scheme of a possible 5-class structure of Russian society using an approach is offered.