European regions experience accelerating ageing, but the process has substantial regional variation. This paper examines the effect of this variation on regional economic cohesion in Europe. We measure the effect of convergence or divergence in the share of the working age population on convergence or divergence in economies of NUTS 2 regions. The effect of convergence or divergence in ageing on economic convergence or divergence is quite substantial and, in some cases, is bigger than the effect of changes in productivity and labour force participation. Convergence of ageing leads to economic convergence only when the share of the working age population in rich regions exceeds that in poor regions and the former regions experience a substantial decline in the share of the working age population, or the latter regions experience an increase. During 2003–12, an inverse relationship between convergence in ageing and economic convergence was the rule rather than the exception.
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
This paper is based on the fieldwork carried out in Moscow among Muslim migrants. The research is focused on the practices of ritual healing and expelling djinn in the context of migration and urban post-secular environment. I am interested in self-reflection and introspection of all the participants of the treatment – a mullah, his patients, their relatives, and even opponents to these Muslim practices. In this study, it is not my intention to delve too deeply into the analysis of what possession is or determine its causes, but rather to look at specific situations from my field work through the lens of modernity, morality, authority and precarity, in order to attempt to present the experience of possession and my informants’ struggle against it in all its richness and complexity.
The ageing population in Russia has led to a shift from distributive pay-as-you-go financed pension system into a multi-pillar one. In 2002, individuals were given the opportunity to form and manage their individual pension funds. Since then, reforms have continued. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how the views and attitudes of working-age Russians regarding retirement have changed over a period (2005-2018). Research was done using the survey data «Monitoring of the financial behavior of Russians (2009-2018)» (NRU-HSE), «Monitoring of financial activity of population (2005)» (ZIRCON) and Initiative Study of NAFI (2007). Despite the demographic, economic, and institutional changes that have taken place, individual pension strategies have not changed for the better, fewer Russians are confident in 2018 that they will have enough money for living after retirement, the number of those who expect to receive additional income has reduced, financial retirement strategies have not become common.
The paper addresses the question, what is the underling nature of the Russians’ demand for the state support in three fields such as labour market and employment, social investments, and material support. Based on the recent findings from social policy studies, the authors have tested four different mechanisms, which are as follows: (a) demographic features of the population, (b) household incomes and disposable assets including human and social capital, (c) interests, and (d) locus control and cultural settings. Drawing on the all-Russia representative Monitoring survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2018, the authors argued that population’s demands for the state support has very complex nature. Moreover, the relative impact of income has a paradoxical nature. On the one hand, the Russian data confirm the hypothesis of ‘altruistic reach’ developed in recent studies, which predicts that, in societies with high inequalities, higher incomes boost the probability of demands for the redistributive settings. On the other hand, higher incomes foster state escapism of those Russians who do not consider state as a reliable agent capable to solve their problems.
This article is devoted to the study of international experience in state support of family care for the elderly. The study aims to outline possible prospects for the development of state support for family care in Russia based on critical analysis of international experience. The analysis was based on available data on social support measures for family care in different countries of the world. The study found that financial support is the most common way to support caregivers in Europe. In some countries (for example, Canada, USA) there are tax benefits for persons who provides care for an elderly relative (or disabled person). However, it was mentioned that the main disadvantage of monetary support for care-givers is reducing the incentives to participate in formal employment. In that regard, it is necessary to implement measures to support the ability of care-givers to combine work and family care. Flexible working conditions for care-givers are provided, for example, in the UK, Australia, USA and other countries.
The article analyzes the specifics of identities and attitudes of the three main strata of Russian society, identified on the basis of M. Weber's ideas of positive and negative privileges. Based on the materials of two all-Russian surveys carried out by FCTAS RAS in 2015 and 2018, it is demonstrated that these strata differ among themselves not only in their level of well-being, professional composition and educational level, but also in their identities, social well-being, attitudes, norms and values systems and assessments of current situation in Russia. While the lower and middle strata are relatively close to each other, the upper stratum (about 20% of Russians) stands out with pronounced specifics of identities, planning horizon, prevalence of nonconformist attitudes and type of locus control. The life goals of the top stratum representatives more often have a character of achievement, and their assessments of the situation in Russia, unlike those of the rest of Russians, are quite optimistic. Requests of representatives of this stratum to the state also have their own specifics, in particular there is a pronounced request for a country's breakthrough in science and high technologies. At the same time, solidarity attitudes are less common in the upper stratum, while stigmatization of the poor is more common. It is noted that the features of the attitudes and norms and values systems of the upper stratum are also reflected in the behavioral strategies of its representatives. It is concluded that the defined strata correspond to the main criteria of the classes in their neo-Weberian interpretation, and within the framework of this social structure model the upper stratum can be considered the middle class, which has pronounced specificity not only of its objective, but also subjective characteristics.
One of the most important tasks of higher educational institutions is the training of specialists to be able to adapt to changes in their professional life. At the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the 21st centuries, some methods for developing foreign language competence, needed for their future professional activity, were created by teachers. However, the effectiveness of these methods has not been studied. This fact has aroused the authors’ interest and generated the idea about the necessity to conduct scientific research in order to identify the most effective methods of teaching foreign languages for special purposes. Methods: The given research paper is based on the analysis of Russian and foreign scholars’ scientific works covering the problem of teaching foreign languages for special purposes to the students of humanitarian professions, as well as on the basis of the results from questioning students of bachelor degree programs who study foreign languages for special purposes in the field of humanitarian professions, and also of the results from questioning teachers specializing in teaching foreign languages for special purposes. Results: In the students’ opinion, the most effective methods of teaching foreign languages for special purposes in the field of humanitarian professions are the following: discussion, ICT (information and communication technologies), and SCRUM (framework that helps teams work together, encourages team to learn through on a problem). According to the interviewed teachers’ opinion, the most effective methods are discussion, ICT, and round table. The “dilemma” method is the least effective according to the students. As for the teachers, the less effective method is CLIL (content and language integrated learning). Conclusions: The study showed some common views among teachers and students concerning the effectiveness of methods of teaching foreign languages for professional purposes, such as discussion and ICT. The effectiveness of the discussion method is explained by the fact that it allows the integration of students’ knowledge from different areas when solving a problem and provides an opportunity to apply language knowledge and skills into practice. This contributes to forming students’ ability to think clearly, to perceive information critically, to highlight the main idea and find the means and arguments to confirm and substantiate it, and, consequently, to improve the understanding of any theoretical material. The use of ICT in the educational process allows the efficiency of the educational process itself to be improved significantly and leads to new approaches and organizational forms of educational work. In fact, while preparing educational programs and creating didactic materials, special attention should be given to the implementation of ICT methods and discussions in educational activities. Nevertheless, the respondents’ subjective opinion should not reduce the scientific value and effectiveness of other methods of teaching a foreign language for professional purposes. The authors of the paper believe that methods that have not found much support from students and teachers should be studied more thoroughly and carefully. To this end, it could be recommended to organize special training seminars that would allow teachers to be informed of new methods of teaching foreign languages for professional purposes, of their particularities, and to help their active implementation in the learning process.
The article discusses the concentration of the insurance market in Russia, its influence on the state of insurance in the country and regions. The indicators of the concentration of the insurance market, including by types of insurance, are analyzed, the factors of their changes in the period of 2014–2018 are specified. Predictive estimates of the concentration of the insurance business on the basis of identified trends are given.
Very few studies currently exist on poverty adaptation to subjective well-being. We offer analysis on povertyadaptation for Russia, a middle-income country in transition, using panel data for 2001-2017. We found no povertyadaption for life satisfaction and subjective wealth, with longer poverty spells being associated with moredissatisfaction. Similar results hold for other outcomes including satisfaction with own economic conditions, workcontract, job, pay, and career, and for poverty defined using either absolute or relative thresholds. Some evidenceindicates that while those living in rural areas or born outside of Russia have similar levels of poverty adaptation forlife satisfaction, they may adapt less regarding subjective wealth. There is also some evidence that women may be lessadaptive than men, particularly for longer poverty duration
The article demonstrates how the situation of social exclusion affects the strategies that migrants and their children experience vis-à-vis the preschooleducation system of the host society. We use the example of two private institutions established in Moscow by Kyrgyz migrants to explore their role in helping integrate migrant children into the host society. The article examines the role that the Kyrgyz community plays in the life of labor migrants in Moscow, and the reasons why private migrant infrastructure is created today by people from this particular country, even though eventually migrants from other countries use it as well. The author concludes that in recent years, migrants have been creating private infrastructure in Russia as an alternative to the public one. It replaces state institutions for migrants that are not accessible to them. Migrants also view it as one of the channels for entering the Russian society and state institutions. These centers not so much help migrants’ children to escape social isolation, as compensate for the lack of adjustment programs in Russian schools.
Background: Creating visualizations that include multiple dimensions of the data while preserving spatial structure and readability is challenging. Here we demonstrate the use of geofaceting to meet this challenge.
Objective: Using data on young adult mortality in the 32 Mexican states from 1990 to 2015, we demonstrate how aligning small multiples for territorial units, often regions, according to their approximate geographical location – geofaceting – can be used to depict complex multi-dimensional phenomena.
Methods: The idea is to align small-multiples for territorial units, often regions, according to approximate geographical location. We illustrate the technique using data on young adult mortality in the 32 Mexican states from 1990 to 2015.
Results: Geofaceting reveals the macro-level spatial pattern while preserving the ﬂexibility of choosing any visualization techniques for the small multiples. Creating geofaceted visualizations gives all the advantages of standard plots in which one can adequately display multiple dimensions of a dataset.
Contribution: Compared to other ways of small-multiples' arrangement, geofaceting improves the speed of regions' identification and exposes the broad spatial pattern.
This paper provides empirical analysis of income stratification in contemporary Russian society and its dynamics in recent decades. The paper analyses in detail different approaches (absolute and relative) to defining income groups. It is shown that the most widely used thresholds of the absolute approach cannot be efficiently applied to contemporary Russian society, as they fail to define the subgroups within the population, while relative approach, based on the median income as the social standard of living, appears more effective for income stratification in Russia. A specific income stratification scale is suggested. Its application shows that middle-income groups currently dominate in income structure, however, the incomes of their representatives are not high in absolute terms and their living standards are quite modest. Income stratification in Russia has been noticeably transformed over the last 20 years – the middle-income group has been growing while the low income and high-income groups’ shares have been declining. The proposed scale implies possibilities for structural adjustments such as regional- and settlement-specific disparities in income distribution; it can be easily replicated and allows broad potential for future research, including international comparisons of income stratification in societies undergoing transitional processes.
Puprose: The article is aimed at comprehensive study of small enterprises’ innovative activity in Russia and highlights the key constraints factors as well as factors promoting small business innovative activity.
Design/Methodology/Approach: We conduct a review of modern domestic and foreign studies on innovative development of SMEs their components and factors to give a comparative description of the innovation activity of SMEs in Russia and the EU countries. We also consider the factors of innovation activity of SMEs in Russia, to identify their regional differences, and to determine the prospects for the innovation activity of small businesses in Russia. The methodological approach is based on the exploration analysis procedures, principal component analysis (PCA), multidimentional classification and logicitic regression.
Findings: This analysis revealed that Russian small enterprises are characterized by lower indicators of innovation activity than in many developed countries. The constraints to the growth of the innovation activity of small businesses in Russia are the insufficient level of development of credit financing and the backlog of the production and technological bases.
Practical implications: This approach could be used in the development of promotion measures for new innovative process participants, taking into account the regional context. Originality/Value: The main contribution of this study is that the approach can be used in the course of the study to confirm regional differences in the innovative development of small enterprises and allows to identify three clusters with different indicators of the innovative activity of small businesses.
In the study of lifestyle, experts appeal to different aspects of life. By “lifestyle,” some people understand only consumer practices, others focus their attention on civic and political activity, and others depict it through objective characteristics of employment, education, and welfare. Considering the existing approaches, here we present a description of the lifestyle in big cities of Russia, using data from various sources – from official statistics to sample household surveys to present a picture in detail. Special attention is paid to the cases of the two federal cities – Moscow and St. Petersburg, as the most striking examples of the formation of a special urban lifestyle in contemporary Russia.
Macroeconomic dynamics affects incomes of regions’ population and level of poverty: positive shifts in the distribution of regions in relation to these indicators slowed down in the 2010s and were replaced by a negative shift (more apparent in poverty rate) during the crisis of 2014–2017. Income dynamics had a stronger effect on consumption structure and less on population financial behavior. The share of food expenditures is declined in all regions until the 2014 crisis; the most developed regions have the lowest percentage. Structural shift in expenditures in favor of durable goods, including housing, is far from complete in most regions. The increase in the share of expenditures for services is largely due to the growth of tariffs for public utility services. Regional differences are small, with the exception of the Far North regions. The share of spending on human capital reproduction is low and varies slightly between regions. The population of “rich” regions prefers to spend money on recreation and entertainment, but these expenses are shrunken during the last crisis. Individuals' savings behavior is mostly developed in the largest federal cities. Overdue loans are higher in underdeveloped republics and in resource-producing regions, whose population seeks to maintain the level of consumption using loans. The main factor in change structure of consumption and financial behavior is the population incomes, but demographic, settlement and institutional factors must be considered to explain regional differences.
Uncertain economic situations like shock, crisis, and fall impact significantly on the personal investments, main of them are life insurance and savings. Taking into account the importance of precautionary life insurance and savings as the future buffers due to current ambiguity, it is essential to understand individuals’ behavior regarding to the economic uncertainty. This article studies macroeconomic, social, and insurance indicators and its impact life insurance in Russia. We found the supportive arguments both rational and irrational customers’ actions. The justification of discovered contradictory life insurance behavior lies on the bounded or local rationality and its assumptions that can be useful to the participants of insurance markets, policymakers.
The paper presents the composition of regional social expenditure and the role of regional budgets in public social spending as well as the social burden of regional budgets in Russia in the last decade. Also some problematic issues of regional social spending in Russia are discussed.